Balochistan University of Engineering & Technology, Khuzdar
Balochistan University of Engineering & Technology, Khuzdar

Hydraulics & Irrigation Engineering


Specific Objectives of course:

  • To enable students to learn fundamentals of hydraulic engineering, particularly related to open channel flow, flow through pipes, dam and river engineering.
  • To enhance the capabilities of students related to irrigation engineering and canal network.

Course Outline:

Steady Flow in Open Channel: Specific energy and critical depth, Dynamic equation of gradually varied flow, surface profiles and back water curves, Humps and constrictions, Hydraulic jump, Broad crested weirs, venturi flume and critical depth meters.

Unsteady Flow: Flow through pipes, orifices and over weirs under varying heads, Unsteady flow through pipe lines, water hammer, instantaneous and slow closure of valves, Surges in open channel.
Dimensional Analysis and Similitude: Similitude in hydraulic models, similitude requirements, geometric, kinematics and dynamics similarities, dimensionless numbers and their significance, Releigh’s method, Buckingham’s PI-theorem and its application, physical models, techniques and analysis, introduction to numerical models.

Dams and Hydro Power Engineering: Selection of hydropower sites. Components and layout of hydropower schemes. Types of storage dams, forces on dams, design of gravity dams, Reservoir engineering, operation and regulation of storage reservoirs.

Sediment Transport in Channels, Sedimentation Problems in Reservoirs.

Canal Irrigation: Elementary concept about canal head works, selection of their site and layout, weirs and barrages, various components and functions. Measures adopted to control silt entry into canals, silt ejectors and excluders. Design of weirs on permeable foundations, sheet piles and cut off walls. Design of irrigation channels, Kennedy’s and Lacey’s Theories. Rational methods for design of irrigation channels. Comparison of various methods. Computer Aided design of irrigation channels.

Barrages and Headworks:  Canal head regulators, falls, flumes, canal outlets. Cross drainage works: types and functions. Canal lining: advantages and types. Maintenance of irrigation canals. Monitoring of flows-telemetry system.

Water logging and salinity: Causes and effects of water logging, reclamation of water logged soils. Drains and tube wells. Causes and effects of salinity and alkalinity of lands in Pakistan. Reclamation methods. Drainage network in irrigated areas.

Drainage: Definition, Land reclamation, Surface Drainage, Subsurface Drainage, Estimation of discharge capacity of Cross-drainage structures,  Disposal of drainage effluents.

Lab Outline:

The Design work and/or experiments related to above mentioned outline shall be covered in the Laboratory/Design class.

Recommended Books:

  • Warren Viessman, Jr. and Gary L. Lewis, Introduction to Hydrology,  5th Edition Prentice Hall
  • R. K. Linsley, Max A. Kohler, and Joseph L. Paulhus, Hydrology for Engineers, McGraw-Hill Education (ISE Editions); International 2 Revised ed edition (June 1, 1982)
  • Linsley, R. K., J. Franzini, Water Resources Engineering, McGraw-Hill; 4th edition (June 1, 1992).
  • David, A. Chin, Water Resources Engineering, Prentice Hall; 2 edition (April 13, 2006).
  • Linslay, R.K. and Joseph, B.F. Water Resources Engineering, McGraw Hill ,Inc.