Balochistan University of Engineering & Technology, Khuzdar
CE-404

# Fluid Mechanics

 Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of course: To enable students to learn basics of fluid mechanics for civil engineering applications. Course Outline: Introduction: Solids and fluids (liquids and gases). Units and dimensions. Physical properties of fluids; density, specific weight, specific volume, specific gravity, surface tension, compressibility. Viscosity, measurement of viscosity, Newton’s equation of viscosity. Hydrostatics, kinematics, hydrodynamics, hydraulics. Fluid Statics: Pressure intensity and pressure head:  pressure and specific weight relationship, absolute and gauge pressure, measurement of pressure, Piezo-meter, manometer, pressure transducers. Differential manometer and Borden gauge.Forces on Immersed Bodies: Forces on submerged planes & curved surfaces and their applications, Drag and Lift forces, buoyancy and floatation. Equilibrium of floating and submerged bodies.Fluid Kinematics: Steady and unsteady flow, laminar and turbulent flow, uniform and non-uniform flow. Pathline, streamlines and stream tubes. Velocity and discharge. Control volume, Equation of continuity for compressible and incompressible fluids.Hydrodynamics: Different forms of energy in a flowing liquid, head, Bernoulli’s equation and its application, Energy line and  Hydraulic Gradient Line,  Introduction to density currents, free and forced vortex, Forces on pressure conduits, reducers and bends, stationary and moving blades, torques in rotating machines.Flow Measurement: Orifices and mouthpieces, sharp-crested weirs and notches, pitot tube and pitot static tube, venturimeter, velocity methods.Steady Flow through Pipes: Darcy-weisbach equation for flow in pipes. Losses in pipe lines, hydraulic grade lines and energy lines. Pipes in series and parallel. Transmission of energy through pipes. Introduction to computer aided analysis of pipe networks. Uniform Flow in Open Channels: Chezy’s and Manning’s equations, Bazin’s and Kutter’s equations, Most economical rectangular and trapezoidal section. Lab Outline: The Design work and/or experiments related to above mentioned outline shall be covered in the Laboratory/Design class. Recommended Books: Daugherty, R.L., J.B. Franzini and Fenimore, Fluid Mechanics with Engineering Application, McGraw Hill New York(Latest Edition) Monson Young, Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, (Latest Edition) Douglus, Fluid Mechanics, McGraw Hill Inc. Jack P. ,Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics , McGraw Hill Inc. Merle Potter, Mechanics of Fluid, CL- Engineering (2011)