Balochistan University of Engineering & Technology, Khuzdar
Balochistan University of Engineering & Technology, Khuzdar

Engineering Geology


Specific Objectives of course:

  • To understand composition of various minerals, rocks and their properties.
  • To develop a solid base for application of geology to engineering problems.

Course Outline:

Introduction to Geology: The Earth as a planet, Process of external and internal origin (Volcanic, Metamorphic, Sedimentary)

Importance of Geology for Civil Engineering Projects: Physical properties and identification of common rock forming minerals

Rocks formation and classification:  According to the mode of occurrences and their compositions

Weathering and Erosion: Weathering classification:  fresh, slightly weathered, moderately weathered etc. Formation of Meanders. Cycle of Erosion.

Discontinuity classification: Joints, faults and other fractures, micro structural features: lamination, cleavages, and foliations. Spacing of discontinuities: close, wide, medium etc., Folds, unconformities. Effects of folding, faulting and jointing on civil engineering projects and their recognition in the field.

Description of Rock masses as thickly bedded or thinly bedded: Identification of filling in joints: sand, clay and breccias etc. Color of grains, description with respect to the rock color, identification as a coarse grained, hardness classification.

Geological classification and identification of Rocks by geological names: Identification and subordinate constitutions in rock samples such as seams or branches of other types of minerals for example, Dolomite, Lime stone, Calcareous sand stone, sand.

 Classification of Durability of Rocks in Dry and wet condition with durability test:
Engineering and physical properties of rocks. Geological technical properties of rocks used as building stones, as decorative stones and as industrial rocks such as color, luster, streak, specific gravity, water absorption and unit weight etc.

Brief Introduction to structural Geology: Plate Tectonics with respect to the global application, earthquakes, causes of earthquakes, protective measures against earthquakes zoning of earthquakes in Pakistan, Seismic Waves, Classification of Earthquakes, Earthquake Intensity Scales (modified Mercalli Scale), Geology of Aquifers, Wells, Springs and Ground Water Conditions.

Role of geology in selection of sites for dams, reservoirs, tunnels, ports/harbors and other civil engineering structures:

Land Slides: Definition, Causes of land Slides, Types of Land Slides, Protective Measures for Land Slides, Engineering Considerations.

Glaciers and Glaciations: Origin of Glacial Ice, Types of Glaciers, Movement of Glaciers, Glacial Erosion, Engineering Considerations.

Volcanoes: Formation of Volcanoes, Types of Volcanoes, Nature and Types of Eruption, Products of Eruptions, Engineering Considerations.

Brief introduction to geology of Pakistan

Recommended Books:

  1. Blyth, F.G.H. Geology for Engineers, Butterworth-Heinemann, 7th Edition, 1984
  2. Bell, Engineering Geology, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2nd Edition, 2006
  3. Krynine, Principles of Engineering Geology & Geotechnics, McGraw Hills Inc. 1957